The Evolution of Bitcoin’s Technology Stack

Over the final 10 years, the Bitcoin ecosystem has attracted builders to dedicate hundreds of hours to enhance and revamp most of its underlying codebase. Yet, Bitcoin (BTC) is essentially the identical. The purpose for that is that its core set of consensus guidelines that outline its financial properties, similar to its algorithmic inflation and hard-coded provide, stay unchanged.

Time and time once more, factions have tried to vary these core properties, however all hostile takeovers to date have failed. It’s typically a painful course of however one which highlights and solidifies two of Bitcoin’s largest virtues: No single get together can dictate how Bitcoin evolves; and the absence of centralized management protects Bitcoin’s financial properties.

The obstacles to improvement – and dealing by way of them

The values that make Bitcoin a well-liked phenomenon are additionally people who make growing software program atop Bitcoin more difficult than another digital asset. Developers are restricted to what they’re in a position to rework with a view to not undermine its equipment as a retailer of worth.

Nonetheless, as we’ll see from the examples under, innovation in Bitcoin is feasible. It requires creativity and endurance.

Since altering Bitcoin’s core layer requires a quasi-political course of that will infringe upon its financial properties, innovation is commonly carried out as modules. This improvement is much like that of the web’s protocol suite, the place layers of various protocols specialise in particular capabilities. Emails had been dealt with by SMTP, recordsdata by FTP, internet pages by HTTP, person addressing by IP and packet routing by TCP. Each of those protocols has advanced over time to create the expertise we have now right now.

Spencer Bogart of Blockchain Capital has captured this improvement succinctly: We at the moment are witnessing the start of Bitcoin’s personal protocol suite. The inflexibility of Bitcoin’s core layer has birthed a number of extra protocols focusing on numerous purposes, like Lightning’s BOLT commonplace for fee channels. Innovation is each vibrant and comparatively protected, as this layered strategy minimizes potential dangers.

The diagram under is an try to map all comparatively new initiatives and showcases a extra full illustration of Bitcoin’s expertise stack. It is just not exhaustive and doesn’t sign any endorsement for particular initiatives. It is, however, spectacular to see that innovation being pushed on all fronts – from Layer 2 applied sciences to rising good contract options.

Layer 2

There has been plenty of discuss recently in regards to the fee of adoption of the Lightning Network, Bitcoin’s most distinguished Layer 2 expertise. Critics typically level to an obvious decline within the variety of channels and complete BTC locked when evaluating Lightning’s person adoption. Yet, these metrics aren’t essentially the most definitive measurement of adoption.

One of essentially the most underrated virtues of the Lightning Network is its simple privateness properties. Since Lightning doesn’t depend on international state reconciliation – i.e., its personal blockchain – customers can transact privately over utilizing extra methods and community overlays, like Tor. Activity occurring inside personal channels is just not captured by standard Lightning explorers. As such, a rise in personal utilization of Lightning has resulted in a lower in what may be publicly measured, main observers to erroneously conclude that adoption is down. While it’s true that Lightning should overcome substantial usability obstacles earlier than it could actually get pleasure from extensive adoption, utilizing deceptive metrics to make assertions in regards to the present state of the community serves few.

Another latest improvement within the discipline of Layer 2 privateness was the creation of WhatSat, a non-public messaging system atop Lightning. This undertaking is a modification of the Lightning Network Daemon (LND) that permits the relayers of personal messages, who join the entities speaking, to be compensated for his or her providers through micropayments. This decentralized, censorship-and-spam-resistant chat was enabled by improvements within the LND itself, similar to latest enhancements within the lightning-onion, Lightning’s personal onion routing protocol.

There are a number of different tasks leveraging Lightning’s personal micropayment capabilities for quite a few purposes from a Lightning-powered cloud computing VPS to a picture internet hosting service that shares advert income through microtransactions. More typically, we outline Layer 2 as a set of purposes that may use Bitcoin’s base layer as a court docket the place exogenous occasions are reconciled and disputes are settled. As such, the theme of information anchoring on Bitcoin’s blockchain goes past Lightning, with firms like Microsoft pioneering a decentralized ID system atop Bitcoin.

Smart contracts

There are tasks trying to carry again expressive good contract performance to Bitcoin in a protected and accountable manner. This is a big improvement as a result of, beginning in 2010, a number of of the unique Bitcoin opcodes – the operations that decide what Bitcoin is ready to compute – had been faraway from the protocol. This got here after a collection of bugs had been revealed, which led Satoshi to disable a few of the performance of Script, Bitcoin’s programming language.

Over the years, it turned clear that there are non-trivial safety dangers that accompany highly-expressive good contracts. The widespread rule of thumb is that the extra performance is launched to a digital machine – the collective verification mechanism that processes opcodes – the extra unpredictable its packages shall be. More just lately, nonetheless, we have now seen new approaches to good contract structure that may decrease unpredictability and in addition present huge performance.

The devise of a brand new strategy to Bitcoin good contracts referred to as Merklized Abstract Syntax Trees (MAST) has since triggered a brand new wave of supporting applied sciences for Bitcoin good contracts. Taproot is likely one of the most distinguished implementations of the MAST construction that permits a whole software to be expressed as a Merkle Tree, whereby every department of the tree represents a distinct execution final result.

Another fascinating innovation that has just lately resurfaced is a brand new structure for the implementation of covenants, or spend situations, on Bitcoin transactions. Originally proposed as a thought experiment by Greg Maxwell again in 2013, covenants are an strategy to restrict the best way balances may be spent, whilst their custody adjustments. Although the thought has existed for practically six years, covenants had been impractical to be carried out earlier than the appearance of Taproot. Currently, a brand new opcode referred to as OP_CHECKTEMPLATEVERIFY – previously generally known as OP_SECURETHEBAG – is leveraging this new expertise to doubtlessly allow covenants to be safely carried out in Bitcoin.

At first look, covenants are extremely helpful within the context of lending – and maybe Bitcoin-based derivatives – as they permit the creation of insurance policies, like clawbacks, to be carried out on particular BTC balances. But their potential influence on the usability of Bitcoin goes vastly past lending. Covenants can enable for the implementation of issues like Bitcoin Vaults, which, within the context of custody, present the equal of a second personal key that permits somebody that has been hacked to “freeze” stolen funds.

In essence, Schnorr signatures are the technological primitive that make all of those new approaches to good contracts potential. And there are even edgier methods being presently theorized, similar to Scriptless Scripts, which may allow totally personal and scalable Bitcoin good contracts to be represented as digital signatures versus opcodes. These new approaches could allow novel good contract purposes to be constructed atop Bitcoin.


There have additionally been some fascinating developments in mining protocols, particularly these utilized by mining pool constituents. Even although the difficulty of centralization in Bitcoin mining is commonly wildly exaggerated, it’s true that there are energy buildings retained by mining pool operators that may be additional decentralized. 

Namely, pool operators can determine what transactions shall be mined by all pool constituents, which grants them appreciable energy. Over time, some operators have abused this energy by censoring transactions, mining empty blocks and reallocating hashing with out the authorization of constituents.

Changes to mining protocols have aimed to subvert the management that mining pool operators can have on deciding what transactions are mined. One of essentially the most substantial adjustments coming to Bitcoin mining is the second model of Stratum, the preferred protocol utilized in mining swimming pools. Stratum V2 is an entire overhaul that implements BetterHash, a secondary protocol that permits mining pool constituents to determine the composition of the block they’ll mine – not the opposite manner round.

Another improvement that ought to contribute to extra stability is reignited curiosity in hash charges and issue derivatives. These may be significantly helpful for mining operations that want to hedge towards hash fee fluctuations and issue readjustments.


Contrary to some arguments on the market, there are a number of rising protocols that may carry non-obligatory privateness into Bitcoin. That being mentioned, it’s seemingly that privateness in Bitcoin will proceed to be extra of an artwork than a science for years to come back.

More typically, the most important obstacle to personal transactions throughout digital property is that the majority options are half-baked. Privacy property that concentrate on transaction-graph privateness typically neglect network-level privateness, and vice versa. Both vectors endure from a scarcity of maturity and utilization, which makes transactions simpler to de-shield through statistical traceability evaluation at both the peer-to-peer (P2P) community layer or the blockchain layer.

Thankfully, there are a number of tasks which might be pushing boundaries on each fronts.

When it involves transaction-graph privateness, options like P2EP and CheckTemplateVerify are fascinating as a result of privateness turns into a by-product of effectivity. As novel approaches to CoinJoin, these options can improve the adoption of personal transactions by customers which might be solely motivated by decrease transaction charges. As CoinJoins, their privateness ensures are nonetheless suboptimal, however unshielded despatched quantities may be useful, as they protect the auditability of Bitcoin’s provide.

If decrease transaction charges change into a motivator and result in a rise in Bitcoin’s anonymity set – the share of UTXOs which might be CoinJoin outputs – de-anonymization through statistical evaluation shall be much more subjective than it already is.

There has additionally been appreciable progress within the privateness of P2P communications, with protocols like Dandelion being examined throughout crypto networks. Another notable improvement is Erlay, an alternate transaction relay protocol that will increase the effectivity of personal communications and reduces the overhead of working a node. Erlay is a crucial enchancment since its effectivity good points allow extra customers to extra simply full IBD and repeatedly validate the chain, particularly in international locations the place ISPs impose caps on bandwidth.

It’s just the start

These examples are solely a handful of initiatives in play to rework the Bitcoin framework. Bitcoin, in its totality, is a continually evolving suite of protocols.

While evolution inside a comparatively strict algorithm and values may be difficult for builders, the layered strategy that we’ve seen unfold is what makes gradual, efficient change potential. Minimizing politicism inside Bitcoin and defending its basic financial properties are crucial components of the method. Developers are studying methods to work inside these bounds in a significant trend.

Lucas Nuzzi, director of expertise of Digital Asset Research. He heads up DAR’s analysis arm, growing authentic stories and insights on all areas of the cryptocurrency ecosystem. Widely regarded all through the digital asset group as an professional on blockchain and distributed programs, Lucas has contributed to a number of main publications. Prior to co-founding DAR in 2019, he was a blockchain researcher and marketing consultant for a handful of years.

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