General

Forces And Trends In Business

The company surroundings is characterised by various variables: competitors, dynamism, turbulence, complexity and alter. All organizations should develop capacity to repeatedly and consciously remodel themselves and their contexts. Such contexts embody restructuring for optimum effectiveness, reengineering key processes and streamlining capabilities which can be capable of present a supply of aggressive benefit. The goal is to adapt, regenerate and most vital, survive. (McLean, 2006).

For an organization to thrive as we speak, strategists should discover methods to extend the group’s capacity to learn and react to trade and market modifications. They should know their objective to spice up the corporate’s strategic flexibility by recognizing disruptions earlier and responding quicker.

Strategic flexibility or adaptability may be outlined because the group’s capability to determine main modifications in its exterior environments, rapidly commit sources to new programs of motion in response to such modifications, and to acknowledge and act promptly when it’s time to halt or reverse present useful resource commitments. Being adaptable means leaders should not get caught in a too-rigid means of trying on the world. The group should view change as an inevitable and important a part of a company’s development, with a purpose to obtain this adaptability.

When there may be uncertainty or unpredictability within the surroundings, managers are inclined to focus virtually all their power on efficiently executing the present technique. What additionally they ought to be doing is making ready for an unknown future. Flexibility stems from the flexibility to be taught; managers are inclined to overlook the destructive and emphasize the optimistic. They want to know not solely what led to the optimistic outcomes but additionally what led to the destructive ones. This will optimize their studying expertise. According to Ford (2004) 4 factors to foster and keep adaptability embody difficult complacency, giving all workers a voice, encouraging participative work and driving worry out of your group.

The corporations chosen for this activity differ by trade: a well-known car producer (Ford) a financial institution going by a merger (Compass) and a start-up software program firm (DawningStreams). Ford and Compass have been in enterprise for a very long time; it’s doubtless they’ve modified their strategic plan primarily based on altering forces and traits. DawningStreams is new (established in 2005 and integrated in 2007). Even although they haven’t had their first sale and don’t have any employees, the homeowners have devised a number of iterations of their technique.

There is a variety of stakeholders all which can be within the exercise of enterprise organizations. Emphasis should be positioned on their adaptability in strategic evaluation and their adaptability in strategic administration of enterprise organizations. The group should have a strategic administration mannequin.

Each firm may scan the identical areas, however for various causes. Considering technological advances, Ford would put together itself to steer the market by having varied digital gear of their autos, in addition to robotic gear with which to construct them and the availability chain expertise to maintain all in examine. Compass Bank goes by a merge and increasing globally; due to this fact they might want to hold abreast of communication expertise. DawningStreams is a software program firm; they might want to monitor these corporations who could be their competitors to make sure their product presents higher performance. All three corporations would be sure that potential clients would have the ability to get good info from web web sites and commercial, which encompasses one more space of expertise the organizations might have/wish to scan. In this occasion, many members of the group should be enrolled: higher administration and finance, who will decide budgetary elements; the IT division, who might be liable for the implementation and upkeep of a number of the expertise; the employees who should be educated to make use of the expertise; a gross sales pressure who will promote the expertise.

To the skin observer, it might appear pointless for any however Ford to scan the (precise) surroundings with regards to points reminiscent of emission management, gas effectivity and hybrid vehicles. That is true nonetheless; Compass Bank and DawningStreams can plan a technique to be friendlier to the surroundings (and their pocketbooks) by working towards paper discount (by the aforementioned expertise). Lastly, DawningStreams’ product could also be helpful as a file sharing service to environmental teams.

With regard to the authorized surroundings, all three should be conscious about legal guidelines, which have an effect on their respective trade amongst others. To Ford, authorized applies, amongst different areas, to environmental safety legal guidelines and division of transportation security legal guidelines. To Compass Bank, they’d abide by the foundations of the Federal Reserve (www.federalreserve.gov) and the Federal Insurance and Deposit Corporation (www.fdic.gov). DawningStreams should observe legal guidelines as they pertain to the switch of information, which have mental property and likewise the export of merchandise, which have algorithms. All three corporations are international and might want to monitor these legal guidelines in different nations, which might impact the strategic planning.

At one firm after another–from Sears to IBM to Hewlett-Packard to Searle, technique is once more a serious focus within the quest for increased revenues and income. With assist from a brand new era of enterprise strategists, corporations are pursuing novel methods to hatch new merchandise, increase present companies, and create the markets of tomorrow. Some corporations are even recreating full-fledged strategic-planning teams. United Parcel Service expects to spin out a brand new technique group from its advertising and marketing division, the place strategic plans at the moment are hatched. Explains Chairman Kent C. Nelson: “Because we’re making larger bets on investments in expertise, we will not afford to spend an entire lot of cash in a single path after which discover out 5 years later it was the incorrect path.”

In such a world we’d like a planning mannequin that enables us to anticipate the long run and to make use of this anticipation together with an evaluation of our organization–its tradition, mission, strengths and weaknesses–to outline strategic points, to chart our path by creating strategic imaginative and prescient and plans, to outline how we’ll implement these plans and to specify how we’ll consider how nicely we’re implementing these plans. The undeniable fact that the world is altering as we transfer ahead sooner or later calls for that the method be an iterative one.

Ford Motor Company – Socio-cultural

Ford Motor Company embraces the socio-cultural modifications happening to permit the corporate to maneuver in the appropriate path with respect to attitudes within the society. Two areas that stand out when it comes to socio-cultural attitudes could be that of gas economic system and smaller vehicles. The rising concern by the general public for higher gas economic system has influenced the corporate’s introduction of the Ford Escape Hybrid and Mercury Mariner Hybrid. The group is dedicated to the hybrid to enhance gas economic system as a world technique to satisfy buyer calls for. The elevated demand in society for such environmentalism has assisted within the resolution for Ford Motor Company to look ahead to including the hybrid function to the Ford Fusion and Mercury Milan and proceed in such a strategic planning path.

The clients that use these autos get a considerable break on their insurance coverage in lots of states and a tax credit score as nicely whereas having fun with the elevated mileage of a automobile that runs on gasoline and capabilities for 100 p.c electrical energy. The environmental scanning by Ford Motor Company has allowed the corporate to be educated of the truth that the individuals within the United States are shopping for extra small vehicles as we speak than some other sort of car section. The existence modifications have been monitored and there may be good information that reveals that such a pattern will proceed on this path and the anticipated development on this section will proceed. The firm has redesigned the within and out of doors of the Ford Focus to set the automotive other than the opponents within the small automotive section whereas growing upgrades and options to expertise optimistic outcomes. The path that the corporate is taking relies on a aggressive benefit and being a frontrunner within the trade. The automobile line has each a sedan and a coupe to draw focused markets together with youthful patrons at an entry stage to construct upon model loyalty and buyer retention. Ford Motor Company will proceed to make use of the socio-cultural elements to drive the enterprise and revel in future success.

Ford Motor Company – Legal –

Ford Motor Company with regard to the Environmental Protection Agency adheres to the authorized facet of environmental scanning. Ford Motor Company accepted an award in March 2007 from the Environmental Protection Agency referred to as the Energy Star 2007 Partner of the Year Award in Energy Management. The firm is the primary automaker to have ever been awarded the award two years in a row. The award has come to be introduced as a result of dedication made by the corporate to extend power effectivity and to cut back the greenhouse gasoline emissions from the entire services within the firm.

The group is dedicated to the accountable use of sources and power effectivity. The management realizes that the environmental safety legal guidelines are of nice significance and use the environmental scanning to maneuver in the appropriate path to acquire future success within the firm. In 2006 alone the corporate has improved the power effectivity within the United States operations by 5 p.c and saving roughly $25 million with sufficient power saved to equal 220,000 properties. The efficient power administration protects the surroundings and reduces the greenhouse emissions. Some of the actions taken by the corporate embody changing lighting that use 40 p.c much less power and utilizing totally different low-energy, long-lasting compact fluorescent lamps within the properties to incorporate the crops, company places of work, distribution facilities, and analysis and growth campuses. Due to the environmental scanning that takes place at Ford Motor Company the corporate will use the data that’s collected and proceed on this path. New initiatives for the corporate embody Fumes-to-Fuel that could be a system that converts paint fumes into electrical energy that’s being carried out with Detroit Edison together with trying to consolidate the applying of primer, base and clearcoat paint purposes right into a single software to remove the necessity for separate purposes and ovens. In addition to the paint sales space emissions Ford Motor Company will proceed to depend on different power sources reminiscent of landfill gasoline and wind and photo voltaic applied sciences to energy their manufacturing services.

Ford Motor Company – Technology –

Another environmental scanning software that Ford Motor Company screens and makes use of could be the technological portion. The firm has invested $1 billion within the newest expertise for versatile manufacturing. The expertise that’s concerned is in lots of varieties to incorporate wi-fi expertise that’s put in on the supply vans with provides to the plant as a monitoring standing and improved effectivity to cut back stock. The flexibility of merchandise in the identical plant permits the group to make use of the identical equipment and course of for all areas from physique meeting, paint facility, and remaining meeting. The improved effectivity on the manufacturing facility permits for a number of automobile platforms to be constructed on the identical line to provide a number of fashions and rapidly change the automobile combine, the amount, and choices primarily based on buyer demand.

The technological modifications which can be being embraced by Ford Motor Company by environmental scanning permits the corporate to expertise enormous value financial savings by new product launches and 50 p.c reductions in cycle changeovers together with waste discount. Robots are among the many technological modifications which can be being skilled inside the group to incorporate the 400 from the challenge which can be used to weld and assemble the metallic physique of the automobile for stamping and meeting. Artificial intelligence within the type of superior visions programs and laser monitoring programs are used to make sure high quality by accuracy and dimension skills. A multi-million greenback coaching facility is used to make sure that the workforce has the information, expertise, and skill to reap the advantages from the brand new expertise that’s being utilized by the corporate. The coaching that’s administered contains the brand new servo-electric weld gun system that identifies the right middle for welding that has changed the older and loud air-powered system that used a much less refined spring system. The environmental scanning of expertise that’s carried out by Ford Motor Company has allowed the corporate to have optimistic outcomes in effectivity whereas remaining a aggressive firm within the trade by value financial savings and steady enchancment.

Compass Bank- Political –

On February 16, 2007, Compass Bancshares, Inc., the mum or dad firm of Compass Bank, introduced the signing of a definitive settlement beneath which Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, S.A. (NYSE: BBV Madrid: BBVA) (“BBVA”) will purchase Compass for a mix of money and inventory. Compass will turn out to be an entirely owned U.S. subsidiary of BBVA and can proceed to function beneath the Compass identify. The transaction is anticipated to shut through the second half of 2007, pending customary closing circumstances, together with crucial financial institution regulatory approvals within the U.S. and Spain and the approval of the stockholders of each Compass and BBVA.

BBVA, which operates in 35 nations, relies in Spain and has substantial banking pursuits within the Americas. The transaction will facilitate BBVA’s continued development in Texas and can create the biggest regional financial institution throughout the Sunbelt. Upon completion of the transaction, Compass will rank among the many prime 25 banks within the United States with roughly $47 billion in complete belongings, $32 billion in complete loans and $33 billion in complete deposits. In addition, the mixed firm will rank fourth in deposit market share in Texas with $19.6 billion in complete deposits and 326 full-service banking places of work.

Compass is a $34 billion Southwestern monetary holding firm that operates 415 full-service banking facilities in Alabama, Arizona, Colorado, Florida, New Mexico and Texas. Compass gives a broad array of services by three main traces of enterprise – Corporate Banking, Retail Banking and Wealth Management. Compass is among the many prime 30 U.S. financial institution holding corporations by asset dimension and ranks among the many prime earners of its dimension primarily based on return on fairness.

Under the phrases of the definitive settlement, which has been authorised by the board of administrators of Compass and the related our bodies of BBVA, Compass will turn out to be an entirely owned subsidiary of BBVA. After closing, BBVA intends to merge its U.S. primarily based banking associates – together with the previous operations of Texas Regional Bancshares, State National Bancshares and Laredo National Bancshares – with Compass.

The combination consideration consists of a set variety of roughly 196 million shares of BBVA widespread inventory and roughly $4.6 billion in money. The merger is topic to customary closing circumstances, together with crucial financial institution regulatory approvals within the U.S. and Spain and the approval of the stockholders of each Compass and BBVA. The transaction is anticipated to shut within the second half of 2007.

The merger between each corporations might be decided by the political elements starting from implications of legal guidelines and rules to the state of world politics together with the consideration of wars which can be happening in several components of the world. New legal guidelines, rules, tax applications and public coverage create forces and traits, which can present challenges and obstacles or alternatives for any firm or group.

Compass Bank – Technology –

Ford is within the technique of implementing a laser marking system on its manufacturing line to make sure the very best normal on every transmission assembled. The system might be checking for high quality on totally different factors on the meeting line. Ford is teaming up with an organization referred to as MECCO to implement this course of and a trial run of the brand new system will final for Three months. MECCO is a frontrunner in its trade with regards to laser expertise. The resolution to implement this new laser marking system got here as a result of it’s extra cost- efficient and safer than earlier methods of marking checkpoints for high quality.

Although this course of at Ford has not formally been carried out but, Compass Bank can be taught a couple of various things. It could also be a good suggestion for Compass Bank to do a brief trial of on-line cellular phone banking to see how fashionable it turns into and if it price on a regular basis and energy, being spent to get it launched. Compass Bank must also contemplate investing into an organization who’s one of the best at what they do, is in the identical time zone, and may meet their calls for in a well timed method, not just because they might be cheaper. Finally, Compass Bank can be taught that they should contemplate what might be most cost-effective and in one of the best curiosity of the corporate over time. Organizing a time line and an inventory of prices and potential dangers would even be useful to Compass Bank in order that they know what to anticipate and when with the implementation of on-line cellular phone banking.

When finishing the worldwide scan one seems for rising new applied sciences which can affect any enterprise in any trade. At one time the emergence of the Internet was a expertise that was turning into an rising pattern throughout all industries. Today very new applied sciences are used to develop info programs at a fraction of the associated fee and time of processes that have been used 5 years in the past. Wireless is a telecommunications expertise which will have moved from a pattern to a pressure in revolutionizing the best way info is saved, accessed and used throughout all industries world wide. Some, if leveraged by an organization inside an trade earlier than opponents use it, could even present a aggressive benefit.

Compass Bank – Competition –

Although mergers could also be expensive and slightly troublesome, the worth it creates ultimately is the specified consequence corporations search. The eagerness to merge relies on a number of beliefs, these beliefs are, that the efficiency positive aspects are larger, bills are lowered, market energy is elevated, and shareholder’s wealth can be larger than earlier than. The worth of a merger is enhanced when the general profit is extra precious than the combination of two separate pre-merger corporations.

In the tip, each John and Bernard ought to contemplate this earlier than finalizing a call. When Zion’s bought Stockmans, there general worth elevated by 43 branches. These branches will assist efficiency and brings far more energy to the monetary market. In the Journal of Money article, Pilloff states “Companies are more willing to acquire others to avoid being acquired themselves.” Keeping this in thoughts, corporations should work out a cross border technique.

As a part of the broad environmental scan, you will need to determine the interior capabilities of the group. There are varied fashions for outlining capabilities. Most give attention to the broad set of intangible belongings reminiscent of model, human capital, organizational capital and even relationship capital. Others embody the extra concrete belongings reminiscent of accessible capital, the group construction, present applied sciences and knowledge expertise infrastructure. In addition to doing a broad environmental pattern, Compass Bank must do a extra detailed functionality evaluation utilizing any of the fashions accessible.

DawningStreams – Competitors –

Business actions have gotten an increasing number of complicated to handle, due to distance, time zones, variety of events concerned in initiatives, variety of duties to attain, a number of prioritizations, lack of basic synchronization, inadequate safe and confidential communication channels and rising complexity of IT infrastructures. The use of activity listing managers has turn out to be quite common. It is turning into tougher to maintain groups synchronized, to observe and to implement new enterprise processes and to change delicate info confidentially. The DawningStreams software program software is aiming at growing the practicality of day by day govt actions. The sorts of enterprise, which is able to most likely be considering our product, are development (dimension of community), consulting (want for synchronization), pharmaceutical analysis (safe change of knowledge) and the software program trade (complexity of producing).

Many corporations have already developed software program purposes that allow secured communications and file sharing. However, most, if not all, are counting on Microsoft applied sciences, which forestall them from increasing to Mac or Unix customers. DawningStreams is developed in Java, which can be utilized on any platform, together with Mac and Unix. Microsoft has acquired the Groove Company and has launched a brand new model of the product, which may carry out lots of the functionalities of DawningStreams, however not generic actions (http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/groove/default.aspx). This is our closest competitor by far. More just lately, we discovered, merely by chance, an organization referred to as Shinkuro (www.shinkuro.com), which presents the file sharing elements of DawningStreams however lacks different capacities.

Although DawningStreams will face competitors from many present gamers, the truth that it’ll mix a super-set of functionalities in a single software, for a really affordable worth, will give it some forefront over different opponents. If the US patent is granted, the place of DawningStreams will turn out to be a distinct segment. Even if the patent weren’t granted, it will take a profound architectural redesign of Groove (or different opponents) to incorporate generic actions and match the provide of DawningStreams. As a technique we’ll monitor the actions of these corporations’ web sites and perceive what they provide when it comes to comparable performance and take a look at to make sure we match or greatest these functionalities to one of the best of our capacity and sources

DawningStreams – Political –

Maintaining the secrecy of knowledge is the elemental operate of encryption objects. Persons overseas could use such objects to hurt US legislation enforcement efforts, in addition to US overseas coverage and nationwide safety pursuits. The US Government has a essential curiosity in making certain that individuals against the United States are usually not capable of conceal hostile or felony actions, and that the authentic wants for shielding vital and delicate info of the private and non-private sectors are met. Since 2000, US encryption export coverage has been directed by three elementary practices: technical evaluate of encryption merchandise previous to sale, streamlined post-export reporting, and license evaluations of proposed transactions involving robust encryption to sure overseas authorities end-users and nations of concern. US encryption coverage additionally seeks to make sure that American corporations are usually not deprived by the European Union’s “license-free zone.” (Bureau of Industry and Security, 2007).

DawningStreams will include cryptographic capabilities. Any dependable and environment friendly cryptographic system requires a government to keep away from identification theft. Cryptography is a key performance of DawningStreams. All specialists insist on designing programs utilizing well-studied algorithms and absolutely examined protocols; novelty is taken into account a supply of danger. The cryptographic layer of DawningStreams will depend on a twin public-private key system. The personal key encryption system will implement Rijndael, the Advanced Encryption Standard (http://csrc.nist.gov/CryptoToolkit/aes/rijndael/), the general public key system will implement RSA (www.rsa.com) and the hashing operate will implement the 256 bits model of the Secure Hash Algorithm (http://secure-hash-algorithm-md5-sha-1.co.uk/ ).

Encryption merchandise can be utilized to hide the communications of terrorists, drug smugglers, and others intent on harming U.S. pursuits. Cryptographic merchandise and software program even have army and intelligence purposes that, within the arms of hostile nations, might pose a risk to U.S. nationwide safety. The nationwide safety, overseas coverage, and legislation enforcement pursuits of the United States are protected by encryption export controls. These controls are in step with Executive Order (E.O.) 13026, which was issued on November 15, 1996, and the Presidential Memorandum of the identical date. (Bureau of Industry and Security, 2007).

DawningStreams additionally plans to be a global firm, as places of work now exist within the Netherlands and the US. As a part of the technique, we’ll guarantee we stay compliant by registering our product with any crucial company and permitting these businesses entry to the processes in the event that they really feel there’s a risk. We might be accountable to observe (as greatest as we are able to) our shopper base and to place the correct verbiage in our contracts that unlawful actions is not going to be tolerated. We will proceed to observe the BIS website talked about in earlier paragraphs and likewise websites within the European Union such because the Crypto Law web site of authorized professional Bert-Jaap Koops (http://rechten.uvt.nl/koops/)

DawningStreams – Technology/Intellectual Property –

The administration of organizational technique requires a complete evaluation of the macro surroundings of the enterprise. Intellectual Property (IP) refers back to the unique concepts and improvements developed by a company with a purpose to haul up its programs and processes. Creation of concepts requires massive investments. This necessitates the safety of IP. Benchmarking is the continual technique of measuring merchandise, processes, and programs of a company towards these which can be rated greatest within the trade. It helps in uncovering weaknesses and flaws within the organizational programs, processes, and merchandise. (Watson, 2003)

The research of the worldwide analysis performed by McAfee Inc. and MessageLabs Ltd. on safety risk in small companies within the U.S. reveals that 80 p.c of small-and-medium-sized companies (SMB) consider that an info expertise (IT) safety failure could be damaging in achieving their enterprise priorities. Yet, solely few are courageously making steps to combat towards infringements attributable to useful resource limitations from different enterprise associated priorities. The analysis implies that firm dimension performs a vital half in the best way senior administration views safety. Among the challenges that SMBs face embody maintaining up-to-date with safety options and maintaining prices low. Small-to-medium companies’ conduct in the direction of safety could be very tactical and meets solely quick necessities. (unknown, 2007)

DawningStreams’ relevance to those forces is two-fold. We are a software program firm-there is a chance for us to lose the mental property by those that would obtain and try to switch the code. We have opponents who provide performance much like ours, nonetheless we provide an extra performance the others don’t. It is that this ‘specialty performance’ for which we utilized for a patent the United States Patent and Trademark Office. If the patent is granted, there may be much less probability of software program piracy or the lack of our IP. Environmental scans ought to present us if there are different corporations attempting to do that.

The performance, which most resembles our opponents’, is the flexibility to share information. That brings in a unique concern with mental property- the likelihood another person’s IP may very well be despatched from one among our customers to a different, as this might critically harm our fame, as what occurred with Napster. (www.napster.com).

Conclusion

At one firm after another–from Sears to IBM to Hewlett-Packard to Searle, technique is once more a serious focus within the quest for increased revenues and income. With assist from a brand new era of enterprise strategists, corporations are pursuing novel methods to hatch new merchandise, increase present companies, and create the markets of tomorrow. Some corporations are even recreating full-fledged strategic-planning teams. United Parcel Service expects to spin out a brand new technique group from its advertising and marketing division, the place strategic plans at the moment are hatched. Explains Chairman Kent C. Nelson: “Because we’re making larger bets on investments in expertise, we will not afford to spend an entire lot of cash in a single path after which discover out 5 years later it was the incorrect path.”

In such a world we’d like a planning mannequin that enables us to anticipate the long run and to make use of this anticipation together with an evaluation of our organization–its tradition, mission, strengths and weaknesses–to outline strategic points, to chart our path by creating strategic imaginative and prescient and plans, to outline how we’ll implement these plans and to specify how we’ll consider how nicely we’re implementing these plans. The undeniable fact that the world is altering as we transfer ahead sooner or later calls for that the method be an iterative one.

References

Bilek, E. (n.d.) Compass Bankshares to be Acquired by Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, S.A.,

Investor Relations. Retrieved from the Internet on March 31, 2007 at

http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/irol/77/77589/bbvarelease.pdf

Cole, Jim. Zions makes small deal, cites rising Arizona market. American Banker, 171(175), 1-1. Retrieved March 31, 2007 from Proquest Database.

Ford Motor Company (2006). Ford Motor Company. Retrieved March 2007,

from the World Wide Web, Web Site: [https://ford.com]
Ford, S. (2004) Adapted from 13 Skills Managers Need to Succeed, Harvard Business School

Press. Retrieved March 31, 2007 from EBSCOHost Database.

Hockenberry, Todd. (2006). Ford implements superior laser marking. Industrial Laser Solutions, 21(4), 6-7. Retrieved March 31, 2007, from EBSCOhost database

Jacobs, P. (2005) Five Steps to Thriving in instances of Uncertainty. Negotiation (p.3) Retrieved

April 1, 2007 from EBSCOHost Database.

McLean, J. (2006) We’re going by modifications! British Journal of Administrative Management

54. Retrieved March 30, 2007 from EBSCOHost Database.

Pearce, J. & Robinson, R, (2004). Strategic Management: Formulation, Implementation, and Control. [University of Phoenix Custom Edition e-text]. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Retrieved March 2007, from the University of Phoenix, Resource, MBA 580-Strategies for Competitive Advantage Course Web Site: https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/resource/resource.asp

Author Unknown, Strategic Planning, After a decade of gritty downsizing, Big Thinkers are again in company vogue. (2006) Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.businessweek.com/1996/35/b34901.htm

Unknown (2007) 80% of Small-to-Medium Sized Firms Fear a Security Threat. Computer Security Update 8 (4). Retrieved March 30, 2007 from EBSCOHost Database.

Unknown (2006) Strategic Planning, After a decade of gritty downsizing, Big Thinkers are again

in company vogue. Retrieved from the Internet at

http://www.businessweek.com/1996/35/b34901.htm

US Department of Commerce (2007), Encryption (ch.10, part 742.15). Retrieved March 27, 2007 from the Bureau of Industry and Security Website at http://www.bis.doc.gov/news/2007/foreignpolicyreport/fprchap10_encryption.html

Watson, G. (2003) Business Environmental Scans for Intellectual Property Strategy (PowerPoint Presentation). Retrieved March 28, 2007 from the Oklahoma State University web site at http://www.okstate.edu/ceat/msetm/courses/etm5111/CourseMaterials/ETM5111Session3Part2.ppt#260,1,Business Environmental Scans for Intellectual Property Strategy

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